HIV Blood Test | SINGAPORE SEXUALHEALTH™
HIV Blood Test | SINGAPORE SEXUALHEALTH™ @singaporesexualhealth_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) blood test, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Blood Test | SINGAPORE SEXUALHEALTH™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV Test
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Subtype-independent near full-length HIV-1 genome sequencing and assembly to be used in large molecular epidemiological studies and clinical management.
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 11:42:04 +0100 | Journal of the International AIDS Society
CONCLUSIONS: Our high efficiency subtype-independent HIV-NFLG is a simple and promising approach to be used in large-scale molecular epidemiological studies. It will facilitate the understanding of the HIV-1 pandemic population dynamics and outline effective intervention strategies. Furthermore, it can potentially be applicable in clinical management of drug resistance by evaluating DRMs against all available antiretrovirals in a single assay.
Routine HIV Testing Within the ED of a Major Trauma CentreRoutine HIV Testing Within the ED of a Major Trauma Centre
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 09:31:50 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
Should HIV testing be routine for every patient in the emergency department? HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Angola: Over 100 Women Hold HIV/Aids Test
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 08:36:11 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[ANGOP] Uíge -At least one hundred and two women have held in the last seven days, at the Mother and Child Centre of Pedreira Quarter, HIV/AIDS tests, overcoming 97 women in the previous week, said Friday to ANGOP the head of the institution, Tussamba Jose. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Tanzania: Kilimanjaro Excels in HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission Prevention
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 08:17:54 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth
[Daily News] Moshi -Kilimanjaro region has registered remarkable success in retaining HIV/AIDS patients on drugs and constant clinic attendance, resulting in more than 95 per cent of HIV-positive women bearing babies free from the problem. (Source: AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth)
Cryptosporidiosis: Facts, Treatment & Prevention
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 00:01:53 +0100 | Disabled World
Cryptosporidiosis or, 'crypto,' is a form of disease that causes a person to experience watery diarrhea. It is caused by microscopic germs; parasites called, 'Cryptosporidium.' While crypto may affect anyone, some groups are likely to develop more serious illness. For those with weakened immune systems, symptoms may be severe and might lead to life-threatening illness. Examples of people with weakened immune systems include people with AIDS, people with inherited forms of diseases that affect their immune system, as well as transplant and cancer patients who are taking certain immunosuppressive medications. (Source: Disabled World)
Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: Implications for family planning counselling
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | Reproductive BioMedicine Online
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015 Source:Reproductive BioMedicine Online Author(s): Cornelia van Zyl , Maretha J. Visser The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible ...
Bisexual Behaviors, HIV Knowledge, and Stigmatizing/Discriminatory Attitudes among Men Who Have Sex with Men
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | PLoS One
by Meizhen Liao, Mei Wang, Xingjie Shen, Pengxiang Huang, Xingguang Yang, Lianzheng Hao, Catherine Cox, Pingsheng Wu, Xiaorun Tao, Dianmin Kang, Yujiang Jia
Why Send Humans To Space When We Can Send Robots?
Sun, 28 Jun 2015 03:38:02 +0100 | Science - The Huffington Post
We live in an exciting era. For the first time in half a century, we are embroiled in another great space race. With each passing day our understanding of ourselves and our universe allows for massive innovations in the fields of science and technology, such as computers that are learning to program themselves or developing cures for medical scourges of humanity like cancer or AIDS. In the midst of these breakthroughs, it can be difficult to step back and approach such developments not only with a sense of wonder, but also with a critical eye. Perhaps the most crucial question of our times is: “At what cost?” It’s a question which despite its importance is nevertheless asked far too infrequently. Going to space is great, of course. But what does it mean for the future of humanity whe...
A comparative study of erectile function and use of erectile aids in high-risk prostate cancer patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy
Sun, 28 Jun 2015 03:27:25 +0100 | Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Scandinavian Journal of Urology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology)
Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.
Sun, 28 Jun 2015 00:48:17 +0100 | Adv Dent Res
Authors: Abid A, Maatouk F, Berrezouga L, Azodo C, Uti O, El-Shamy H, Oginni A