Sat Dec 16 17:05:15 +08 2017  
SINGAPORE
SEXUALHEALTH™
    STD
SINGAPORE SEXUALHEALTH™
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis): Stop HIV infection within 3 days after unprotected sex.
HIV test: 20 minute rapid test to accurately detect HIV infection 28 days after unprotected sex.
STD testing: Full & comprehensive sexually transmitted disease testing.

STD | SINGAPORE SEXUALHEALTH™

Summary

STD | SINGAPORE SEXUALHEALTH™ @singaporesexualhealth_com: Get your sexually transmitted disease testing & treatment NOW, Singapore. Private & confidential service.

Advertisement: Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
SHIM CLINIC
SINGAPORE SEXUALHEALTH™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Singapore 460168
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: www.shimclinic.com
Opening Hours
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.

Description

What is STD?

STD is an abbreviation for "sexually transmitted disease". A disease is an infection, which is symptomatic. It is more important to know if a person is infected or not, rather than if a person is symptomatic or not. Thus, a more appropriate term is "sexually transmitted infection", or STI.

What is a STI?

An STI is an infection, which is mainly transmitted via sex. The flu virus may be transmitted while having sex, but that isn't its main mode of transmission.

What is sex?

Sex is having any part of the penis inserted into the vagina, anus, or mouth of another person. Or cunnilingus.

What are the common STIs?

They are viruses, bacteria, and parasites:

  • HPV (human papillomavirus)
  • Genital herpes
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
  • Syphilis

HPV (human papillomavirus) is a virus. After infection, 3 to 6 months later, at the points of sexual skin contact, like the penis, pubic area, vagina, anus and mouth, there may appear growths called genital warts. Of the many types of HPV, some may cause cancer of the areas affected. The cancer risk is highest for the female cervix, when compared to other areas.

Genital herpes is an infection caused by a virus, called herpes simplex virus or HSV. After infection, 1 day to 2 weeks later, at the points of sexual skin contact, like the penis, pubic area, vagina, anus, and mouth, there may appear blisters and ulcers.

Chlamydia is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. After infection, 1 to 3 weeks later, while urinating, there may be an irritation. Also, there may be a grey to green discharge.

Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. After infection, 1 day to 2 weeks later, while urinating, it is usually painful. Also, there is usually a thick yellow discharge.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus. After infection, 2 to 4 weeks later, there may be symptoms of acute HIV infection. Which are usually fever, malaise (general discomfort), muscle pain (myalgia), rash, headache, night sweats, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain, and blocked nose.

Syphilis is caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. After infection, 9 to 90 days later, at the point of sexual skin contact, like the penis, vagina, anus and mouth, there may appear a chancre, which is a painless ulcer.

Do I have an STD?

Having no symptoms does not mean no STD. Get tested NOW: STD Testing

STD classification and terminology

  • Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - refers only to infections that are causing symptoms.
  • Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - refers to infection with any germ that can cause an STD, even if the infected person has no symptoms.
  • Venereal disease (VD) - term used before the 1990s.
  • Genitourinary medicine (GUM) is an expanding specialty which is primarily related to the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
  • Sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected and fulfilled.
  • Sex or "sexual activity" means — (a) sexual activity occasioned by the introduction into the vagina, anus or mouth of any person of any part of the penis of another person; or (b) cunnilingus.
Venereal | Genitourinary | Urogenital | Genital |

References

Disease Organism Incubation Symptoms Investigation
Viral
HIV infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 2-4w 50% None,
50% Flu-like:
acute seroconversion syndrome
HIV test
Asymptomatic phase
3-20y
8y average
AIDS
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) 40-160d Flu-like:
prodromal phase
Jaundice:
icteric phase
HBsAg
Genital herpes Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1d-2w Multiple painful blisters & ulcers HSV Serology
HSV PCR
Genital warts Human papillomavirus (HPV) 3-6m Cauliflower growths HPV test
Molluscum contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) 2-7w Pearly growths Histology
Bacterial
Syphilis Treponema pallidum 9-90d Chancre:
1° syphilis
VDRL test
RPR test
TPHA test
FTA-Abs test
2-6m Rash:
2° syphilis
<1 year Asymptomatic:
early latent
>1 year Asymptomatic:
late latent
5-10 years Benign gumma,
Cardiovascular syphilis,
Neurosyphilis:
3° syphilis
Gonorrhoea (UK)
Gonorrhea (US)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1d-2w Urethral 90%,
Cervical 50%,
Pharyngeal &
Rectal 10%:
pain & discharge
Gram-negative intracellular diplococci smear,
Gonococcal culture,
Gonococcal PCR
Chlamydia infection Chlamydia trachomatis 1-3w Pain & discharge Chlamydia PCR
Protozoal
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis Female: foul discharge & itch
Male: urethritis
BD Affirm™ VP III
Fungal
Candidiasis
(Yeast infection)
Candida albicans Female: cheesy discharge & itch
Male: rash
BD Affirm™ VP III
Parasitic
Pubic lice
Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei

Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
Contraception (females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) STD vaccine:
- Hepatitis vaccine
- HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV prevention
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment
- Stop HIV infection after exposure.
STD testing.
If STD symptoms appear, then do STD treatment.
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.
Emergency contraception (females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA PCR test
1 month 20 minute rapid HIV test - SD Bioline HIV Ag/Ab Combo:
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
3 months 20 minute rapid HIV test - OraQuick®:
- Oral saliva or
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
Full & comprehensive STD testing
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.

References


Latest News

Microarray-based assay for simultaneous identification and drug resistance detection of microorganisms causing sexually transmitted diseases
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by microorganisms are among the most dangerous and rapidly spreading infections. STDs are often polymicrobial and caused not only by obligate pathogens, but also by a variety of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, that may result in an atypical course of the diseases. The worldwide increase of drug-resistant STD's strains is also major challenge that necessitates the elucidation of the resistance mechanisms and development of new methods of genetic analysis suitable for implementation in clinical laboratory practice. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Recurrent spontaneous abortion: Significance of early non-invasive detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection is common widespread public health concern worldwide, chiefly in women because of chronic oligosymptomatic/asymptomatic course of infection. These “silent infections” lead to devastating reproductive consequences such as spontaneous abortion. During pregnancy, collection of endocervical sample causes discomfort; also chorionic villous sampling is not done in India. It is thus important to investigate whether molecular diagnosis of C. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Correlates of county-level non-viral sexually transmitted infection hot spots in the US
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
In this study, we used a combination of hot spot analysis (HSA) and spatial regression to examine the county-level correlates of the most commonly reported curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the U.S. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

The evaluation and risk assessment of sexually transmitted disease in Korean adolescents at risk
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: There have been little researches of sexually transmitted infection (STI) for adolescent at risk in Korea and these studies were just for prevalence limited to Chlamydia trichomonas and Neisseria gonorrheae. We explored prevalences and risk factors of 10 pathogens of STI at risk adolescent. Through conducting treatment model, we aim to develop a substantial management plan. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Prevalence of genital herpes in HIV positive patients attending STI clinic at a tertiary care hospital and its correlation with CD4 counts
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: HIV infection is emerging as one of the major health problems faced by the clinicians across the world, more so because of co-existence of many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV infected patients. The presence of untreated STIs (both ulcerative and non-ulcerative) increases the risk of both acquisition and transmission of HIV by a factor of upto 10 times. Recurrent and persistent ulcerative HSV2 lesions are among the common infections in HIV patients. Prevalence of genital herpes has increased markedly between the 1970's and 1990's. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Trichomonas vaginalis infection and reproductive complications in women from central Iran
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
In this study, the frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and the possible risk factors were examined in women attending gynecological clinics in Qom, central Iran. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

In vitro activity of different 5-nitroimidazole derivatives and essential oils against Trichomonas vaginalis
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100 | International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. Treatment of trichomoniais is usually achieved by 5-nitroimidazole derivatives. But some resistant strains to treatment failures of metronidazole have been reported and also numerous side effects, so it is continuing the search for alternative treatments. We evaluated in vitro effective concentrations of different 5-nitroimidazole derivatives and essential oils against T. vaginalis (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Angola: Health Authorities Sensitize People Against HIV/Aids
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 08:58:32 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[ANGOP] Kuito -The health authorities of the municipality of Cuemba, 164 kilometers east off Kuito city, central Bie province, continue to sensitize people against HIV / AIDS in schools, parks and other places of the highest population in order to combat the disease within families. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)

Malawi: Saving Children's Lives Through Drones
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 06:45:02 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[IPS] Lilongwe, Malawi -The first successful test-flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or drone was an unhindered 10 km journey from a community health centre to the Kamuzu central hospital laboratory in the capital Lilongwe. Local community members watched with excitement as the drone rose into the sky, after being launched by the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and government of Malawi at the area 25 health centre. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)

S&t-45 association between pubic hair grooming and sexually transmitted infections: results from a nationally representative probability sample
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:00 +0100 | The Journal of Urology
Small-scale studies suggest pubic hair grooming is associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). No large study has evaluated the association between grooming and STIs. Our aim is to characterize this possible correlation. (Source: The Journal of Urology)